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招警考试模拟题:我国在养老方面存在哪些问题?

近年来,中国老年人福利制度不断完善,老年人社会服务事业发展较快,农村五保老人和城市“三不”老人分别惠及低收入老年人和全社会。

In recent years, China's welfare system for the elderly has been continuously improved, and the social services for the elderly have developed rapidly. The five guarantees in rural areas and the three no's in urban areas have benefited the low-income elderly and the whole society respectively.

中国进入老龄化社会以来,老年人口基数大、增长快、老龄化、残疾人、空巢现象明显。此外,中国的“未富先老”的国情和小家庭结构相结合,形成了一个极其严重的养老问题。

Since China entered the aging society, the population base of the elderly is large, growing fast, aging, disabled and empty nest phenomenon is obvious. In addition, the combination of China's national conditions of "old before rich" and small family structure has formed an extremely serious pension problem.

截至2011年底,中国60岁以上老年人口已达1.85亿。据估计,到“十二五”末,中国老年人口将增加4300多万,达到2.21亿。到那时,80岁以上的老年人将达到2400万,65岁以上的空巢老人将超过5100万。

By the end of 2011, the number of people over 60 years old in China had reached 185 million. It is estimated that by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan, China's elderly population will increase by more than 43 million to 221 million. By then, there will be 24 million people over 80 and 51 million empty nesters over 65.

在养老福利制度方面,16个省份建立了一个生活补贴制度80岁以上的老年人在2011年底,14个省建立了养老金补贴系统对生活在困难的老年人,和所有省份了老年人社会政策优惠。

In terms of pension welfare system, 16 provinces have established a living subsidy system for the elderly over 80 years old. By the end of 2011, 14 provinces have established a pension subsidy system for the elderly living in difficulties, and all provinces have established social policy preferences for the elderly.

地方政府也在探索社会养老服务的新模式,如农村养老互助、农村家庭病人护理、农村居家养老服务站等。初步建立了以居家养老、社区养老、机构养老、财政养老和服务配套为基础的社会养老服务体系。

Local governments are also exploring new models of social pension services, such as rural mutual assistance for the aged, permanent care for rural family patients, rural home-based pension service stations, etc. It has initially established a social pension service system based on home-based pension, community pension, institutional pension, financial pension and service supporting.

社会对机构养老的关注。据统计,中国养老机构和床位数量分别从2002年的3.76万和1149万张增加到2011年的4.09万和351万张。管理运行机制由政府主导型向政府主导型、多主体参与型转变。

The society pays attention to the institutional pension. According to statistics, the number of pension institutions and beds in China increased from 37600 and 11.49 million in 2002 to 40900 and 3510000 in 2011. The operation mechanism of management has changed from the government leading type to the government leading type and multi-agent participating type.

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大约在同一时间,连续增加养老金近年来企业支出,民政部和国家开发银行还签署了相关协议,探索社会投资和融资渠道,国家发展和改革委员会起草关于鼓励社会力量参与养老服务设施,通过税收、土地、水、电、天然气和其他方面的优惠政策,鼓励更多民间资本参与社会养老服务体系建设。

At about the same time, the pension has been continuously increased in recent years. The Ministry of civil affairs and the National Development Bank have also signed relevant agreements to explore social investment and financing channels. The national development and Reform Commission has drafted policies on encouraging social forces to participate in pension service facilities, and encouraging more private capital to participate in the society through preferential policies on tax, land, water, electricity, natural gas and other aspects The construction of elderly care service system.

民政部还将通过学历教育和在职培训,建立一支具有水平的高级护理助理队伍。建立养老机构准入、监管、退出机制,保障养老服务的改善和健康发展。

The Ministry of civil affairs will also establish a professional senior nursing assistant team through academic education and on-the-job training. We will establish mechanisms for the access, supervision and exit of pension institutions to ensure the improvement and healthy development of pension services.

问题:结合物质和社会实际,谈谈我国在养老方面存在哪些问题?

Question: combined with the material and social reality, what are the problems in China's pension?

1. 儿童养老观念的转变。在现代文明的冲击下,传统的养老观念和方式越来越被人们淡化。许多人不再把照顾父母作为他们的首要责任,甚至拒绝支持他们的父母。在中国,尊老的传统美德已经被削弱了。

1. The change of children's pension concept. Under the impact of modern civilization, the traditional concept and way of providing for the aged are increasingly diluted by people. Many people no longer take care of their parents as their primary responsibility, or even refuse to support their parents. In China, the traditional virtue of respecting the old has been weakened.

老年人的贫困。有些老人几乎没有享受到养老保险,只能靠退休金来维持自己的生活。另一方面,不断上涨的物价,尤其是医疗、教育和住房的价格,使老年人的生活更加困难。

Poverty of the elderly. Some old people almost do not enjoy endowment insurance, can only rely on retirement benefits to maintain their own lives. On the other hand, rising prices, especially for health care, education and housing, make life more difficult for the elderly.

社会福利制度不健全。我国的安老院远远不能满足老年人的需要。

The social welfare system is not sound. China's homes for the elderly are far from meeting the needs of the elderly.


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