In recent years, China's welfare system for the elderly has been continuously improved, and the social services for the elderly have developed rapidly. The five guarantees in rural areas and the three no's in urban areas have benefited the low-income elderly and the whole society respectively.
Since China entered the aging society, the population base of the elderly is large, growing fast, aging, disabled and empty nest phenomenon is obvious. In addition, the combination of China's national conditions of "old before rich" and small family structure has formed an extremely serious pension problem.
By the end of 2011, the number of people over 60 years old in China had reached 185 million. It is estimated that by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan, China's elderly population will increase by more than 43 million to 221 million. By then, there will be 24 million people over 80 and 51 million empty nesters over 65.
In terms of pension welfare system, 16 provinces have established a living subsidy system for the elderly over 80 years old. By the end of 2011, 14 provinces have established a pension subsidy system for the elderly living in difficulties, and all provinces have established social policy preferences for the elderly.
Local governments are also exploring new models of social pension services, such as rural mutual assistance for the aged, permanent care for rural family patients, rural home-based pension service stations, etc. It has initially established a social pension service system based on home-based pension, community pension, institutional pension, financial pension and service supporting.
The society pays attention to the institutional pension. According to statistics, the number of pension institutions and beds in China increased from 37600 and 11.49 million in 2002 to 40900 and 3510000 in 2011. The operation mechanism of management has changed from the government leading type to the government leading type and multi-agent participating type.
At about the same time, the pension has been continuously increased in recent years. The Ministry of civil affairs and the National Development Bank have also signed relevant agreements to explore social investment and financing channels. The national development and Reform Commission has drafted policies on encouraging social forces to participate in pension service facilities, and encouraging more private capital to participate in the society through preferential policies on tax, land, water, electricity, natural gas and other aspects The construction of elderly care service system.
The Ministry of civil affairs will also establish a professional senior nursing assistant team through academic education and on-the-job training. We will establish mechanisms for the access, supervision and exit of pension institutions to ensure the improvement and healthy development of pension services.
Question: combined with the material and social reality, what are the problems in China's pension?
1. The change of children's pension concept. Under the impact of modern civilization, the traditional concept and way of providing for the aged are increasingly diluted by people. Many people no longer take care of their parents as their primary responsibility, or even refuse to support their parents. In China, the traditional virtue of respecting the old has been weakened.
Poverty of the elderly. Some old people almost do not enjoy endowment insurance, can only rely on retirement benefits to maintain their own lives. On the other hand, rising prices, especially for health care, education and housing, make life more difficult for the elderly.
The social welfare system is not sound. China's homes for the elderly are far from meeting the needs of the elderly.