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如何区分犯罪客体和犯罪对象?

  在刑法知识的备考中,犯罪是核心考点之一。构成要件包括犯罪主体、主观方面、犯罪客体和客观方面四个方面。在学习犯罪客体时,由于概念具有一定的抽象性,许多学生容易混淆犯罪客体和犯罪客体,造成问题的偏差,降低了问题的准确性。本节将通过分析两者之间的联系和区别来帮助您快速正确地回答问题。

  In the preparation of criminal law knowledge, crime is one of the core test points. The constitutive requirements include the subject of crime, the subjective aspect, the object of crime and the objective aspect. When learning the object of crime, because the concept is abstract, many students are easy to confuse the object of crime and the object of crime, resulting in the deviation of the problem and reducing the accuracy of the problem. This section will help you answer questions quickly and correctly by analyzing the connection and difference between the two.

  犯罪客体是指受我国刑法保护的社会主义社会关系,包括人身关系和财产关系。

  The object of crime refers to the socialist social relations protected by the criminal law of our country, including personal relations and property relations.

  犯罪客体是犯罪行为的客体,一般指具体的人或物。

  The object of a crime is the object of a crime, which generally refers to a specific person or thing.

  首先,两者之间的联系

  First of all, the connection between the two

  犯罪客体是犯罪客体的载体,是犯罪客体的外在表现。犯罪客体是犯罪客体本质属性的反映。

  The criminal object is the carrier of the criminal object and the external expression of the criminal object. The criminal object is the reflection of the essential attribute of the criminal object.

  二,两者的区别

  2、 The difference between the two

  1. 不同的属性。犯罪客体是一个相对抽象的概念,是犯罪所违反的一种社会关系。例如,盗窃的对象是公共和私人财产的所有权;抢劫罪的客体是公私财物的所有权和公民的人身权利。而犯罪客体是犯罪客体的具体表现形式。如:盗窃他人钱包,犯罪的客体是携带他人钱包的财产所有权;抢劫无辜的路人,犯罪的目的是实施针对路人的行为。再如:行贿罪的客体是国家工作人员的职务完整和国家经济管理的正常活动,而犯罪的客体是特定的或部分国家工作人员。

  1. Different attributes. The object of crime is a relatively abstract concept, which is a kind of social relationship violated by crime. For example, the object of theft is the ownership of public and private property; the object of robbery is the ownership of public and private property and the personal rights of citizens. The object of crime is the concrete manifestation of the object of crime. For example: stealing other people's wallet, the object of the crime is the property ownership of carrying other people's wallet; robbing innocent passers-by, the purpose of the crime is to carry out acts against passers-by. Another example: the object of the crime of bribery is the integrity of the position of the national staff and the normal activities of the national economic management, while the object of the crime is specific or part of the national staff.

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  2. 是否构成犯罪的必要条件。犯罪客体是所有犯罪的基本要件,但并非所有犯罪都必须有特定的犯罪客体。如:非法越境犯罪、逃逸犯罪、非法集会、游行、示威犯罪等。这些犯罪虽然侵犯了社会关系,但并没有具体的犯罪对象。

  2. Whether it constitutes a necessary condition for a crime. The object of crime is the basic element of all crimes, but not all crimes must have specific object of crime. Such as: illegal cross-border crime, escape crime, illegal assembly, demonstration, etc. Although these crimes violate social relations, they have no specific targets.

  3.是否有必要在同一犯罪中被侵犯。犯罪更本质的特征是严重的社会危害性。在四个构成要件中,社会危害性更直接地体现在犯罪客体上。任何犯罪都必然违反某种受刑法保护的社会关系,但犯罪的客体不一定直接被消灭。例如,犯罪嫌疑人从医院偷走了受害者的车,使受害者无法控制。该行为直接侵犯了受害人的财产所有权,但犯罪对象的车辆并未直接受到该行为的损害。

  3. Whether it is necessary to be violated in the same crime. The most essential feature of crime is its serious social harmfulness. Among the four elements, social harmfulness is most directly reflected in the object of crime. Any crime must violate some social relations protected by criminal law, but the object of crime is not necessarily eliminated directly. For example, the suspect stole the victim's car from the hospital, leaving the victim out of control. The act directly infringes the property ownership of the victim, but the vehicle of the criminal object is not directly damaged by the act.

  4. 犯罪客体是区分本罪与该罪的重要标准,而犯罪客体则不是。我国刑法特别规定中的十类犯罪主要是基于相同的社会关系。例如,财产侵权犯罪包括盗窃和抢劫;侵犯人权和民主权利的犯罪包括绑架、故意杀人和非法拘禁。但是,不能直接根据犯罪对象对各种犯罪行为进行分类。不同的犯罪有不同的目的。但在不同的犯罪中,犯罪对象可能是相同的。以走私淫秽物品罪和生产、销售、传播淫秽物品罪为例,其犯罪对象均为淫秽物品。

  4. The object of crime is an important standard to distinguish this crime from this crime, while the object of crime is not. Ten kinds of crimes in the special provisions of criminal law are mainly based on the same social relations. For example, crimes of property infringement include theft and robbery; crimes of human and democratic rights violations include kidnapping, intentional killing and illegal detention. However, we can not directly classify all kinds of criminal acts according to the object of crime. Different crimes have different purposes. But in different crimes, the object of crime may be the same. Take the crime of smuggling pornographic articles and the crime of producing, selling and disseminating pornographic articles as examples. The targets of the crime are pornographic articles.


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